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The British atomic bomb programme

The McMahon Act and its effects on Britain’s decision for an independent atomic programme
History Essay

  • Assessment: History Essay
  • Mark: A
  • Year: 2007
  • Wordcount: 4322

Excerpt:
During and after 1946, the wartime alliance between Britain, the United States and the Soviet Union began to break down. Already shortly after the war, but particularly with the Berlin Blockade in 1948, the Soviet Union was accepted as the ‘enemy’ and Western Europe was regarded as the area of future conflicts. In September 1945, the Chiefs of Staff estimated that the Soviet Union was to be ready for this major war in the mid 1950s. As a consequence, one principal objective for the policy makers was the preparation of Britain’s forces to encounter this threat.
With the detonations of the American atomic bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, it was clear that this bomb was the weapon of the future. The atomic bomb was superior to everything known hitherto and became “a symbol of great power and no state could risk being left without one” . In addition, it was originally believed that the bomb would result in reduction of the defence costs because it would replace manpower and other conventional military resources. In this sense, the atomic bomb transformed the nature of war and consequently the defence policies of Britain and several other countries. This is highlighted in the report on ‘Future development in Weapons and Methods of War’ by Henry Tizard, which states “if atomic energy can be released explosively, the character of war, the size and composition of military forces, and the scope of armament production will be completely changed” .
During the war Britain stood in close co-operation with the United States concerning nuclear development…

Full text:
file: Atomicbombpolicy_essay_Melanie Konzett.pdf []
Category:
download: 6069


Resistance or Collaboration?

‘Analyse the extent of ‘intellectual resistance’ to and ‘intellectual collaboration’ with the Nazi regime during the Second World War, using precise examples and with references to at least two nations involved in the conflict (one of which must be France).

  • Assessment: Essay
  • Mark: B
  • Year: 2006
  • Wordcount: 3296

Excerpt:
The economic and political instability as well as the rise of radical ideologies in contrast to the destruction of the democracy had a lasting effect on the intellectuals and artists of Europe. After Hitler came to power, many intellectuals attempted to “sort out what it meant to be an artist” and a European in a decadent world. In this sense numerous intellectuals experienced disillusion, alienation and despair but some did also feel a sense of hope, saw increased opportunities and looked forward to a political security within this National Socialistic renewal. As a result some intellectuals decided to compromise and adjust to the dictated framework, whereas others resisted or emigrated.

Nevertheless, according to Burrin, resistance and collaboration of intellectuals and artists “took many forms and went to varying length”. These different degrees of commitment were reflected in the actions and works of European intellectuals. As a consequence within literature, theatre, film and press but also music and art the various states of mind, either resisting or complying, could be found. This paper attempts to demonstrate the differing degrees of individual resistance or collaboration respectively, of specific French, German and Austrian authors. In analysing their literary works and behaviour during the war, this essay will provide evidence that the line between collaboration and resistance cannot be simply drawn but depends highly on its cultural context.

Full text:
file: Intellectuals_History.pdf []
Category: History
download: 1812


1066 - The Norman Conquest

Why were the English unable to prevent the Norman Conquest of England? (Confine your answer to the period 1066-1087)
Medieval History Essay

  • Assessment: essay
  • Mark: B
  • Year: 2005
  • Wordcount: 2093

Excerpt:
The Conquest of England by the Normans was not achieved in a single military stroke. With the triumph at the battle of Hastings William the Conqueror gained an important victory but Hastings was just the beginning. The capitals and centres of resistance had to be occupied, English risings and threats from other Nations had to be put down. The castles, which were the military linchpins of the Normans, had to be built and with them the Normans’ status of military superiority had to be established. But for all that the conquest of a whole country needed far more than battles, suppression of rebellions and men at arms. Beside William’s military strength he used in many cases the more elegant method of diplomacy to subdue the English. William implemented political alliances through intermarriages and replaced key ecclesiastical and secular posts to introduce a new leadership. Furthermore, he ensured the loyalty of his English and Norman vassals by letting them swear fealty and homage to him. Thus based on Anglo-Saxon administrative foundations the conquest was a policy of long duration aiming for political and military stability in England and the acceptance of the Norman leadership.

file: Conquest_History.pdf []
Category: History
download: 2617
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