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Race in the Southern States

In what ways did ‘race’ continue to be a divisive issue in the Southern States between 1865 and 1917?
History Essay

  • Assessment: Essay
  • Mark: B
  • Year: 2005
  • Wordcount: 3115

Excerpt:
Race and discrimination have been seen as unavoidable linked issues for a long time. Non-whites were regarded as being inferior to the white race not only in America but also all over the world; racial differences were “invoked by white Europeans and Americans and to no lesser extent by Asians and Africans” . This worldwide understanding of racial inferiority was mainly derived from other skin colour, different languages and a different understanding of culture. The ideological set of a biblical justified white supremacy, and a legal as well as pseudo-scientific proved inferiority of other ethnic groups, resulted in discrimination and even in enslavement of these “lower races”.

In the West of America, the white elite race applied racial ideologies to subordinate and exterminate Native Americans and to justify the robbery of 86 million acres out of 138 million acres land. White Southerners adapted racial ideologies to rationalize the enslavement of African Americans for economic purposes and to excuse a society that considered African Americans as inhuman. Moreover, this society accepted the fact, that exploitation of involuntary labour power was the basis and vital aspect for their cotton-relied prosperity and social status. “Slave holding as a lifestyle” was similar applicable to the pre-war southern society as was segregation in the post-war era. The Civil War, which was fought “for democracy, for liberty and equality” and thus can be seen as “the war about slavery” did free African Americans from their slave bondage. Nevertheless, the war was not able to implement a lasting colour-blind democracy, economic opportunities and social justice for the large black minority in the South.

Full Text:
file: RaceSouth_History.pdf []
Category: History
download: 1835


Nation of Nations

US Immigration 1851 – 1920
Statistical Analysis

  • Assessment: Statistical Analysis
  • Mark: B
  • Year: 2005
  • Wordcount: 1104

Excerpt:
Imagine, my dear friend, if you can, a society formed of all the nations of the world… people having different languages, beliefs, opinions: in a word, a society without roots, without memories, without prejudices, without routines, without common ideas, without a national character, yet hundred times happier than our own. (Alexis de Tocqueville, 1830)

The source of the data used for this statistical analysis is provided by the U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service, published in 1991, and can be found in Tindall and Shi (2004, Appendix)

A first impression of the significance of the data can be gained when having a look at the overall numbers of immigration in the period from 1851 to 1920 (see Chart 1). From 1851 to 1880 the total number of immigrants has increased only slightly, with a small setback in the 1860s. Then the numbers almost doubled between 1881 and 1890, followed by another setback towards the end of the century. The period from 1901 to 1910 saw the biggest flow of immigrants with numbers reaching almost 8.8 million people. This was followed by a decade of significantly lower immigration but numbers were still high with more than 5.7 million.

This huge and increasing number of immigrants from all different parts of the world led to an alteration of the country. This conclusion cannot only be drawn from the data provided but is also underpinned, among others, by the census of 1890 which had shown that the number of foreign-born element in the population accounted for more than 9 million of a total population of 63 million (Brogan, 1999, p. 393). Where did the immigrants come from? In the period from 1851 to 1920 an overwhelming portion of more than 88 per cent (almost 27.5 million) emigrated from Europe to the United States (see Chart 2).

There are several factors that led to these huge numbers of immigrants and obviously the causes varied from country to country…

file: USImmigrat_History.pdf []
Category: History
download: 2326

The end of Slavery

In what ways did the Civil War fail to liberate African Americans between 1865-1900?
Group Presentation

  • Assessment: Presentation of the political part
  • Mark: B
  • Year: 2005
  • Wordcount: 913

Excerpt:
The 15th Amendment ratified in 1870, forbade the states to deny any citizen the right to vote on ground of race, colour or previous condition of servitude. Before this Amendment was admitted the states had had full responsibility for determining voter qualification. However, also before, that is to say since 1867, many former slaves began to gain political influence and to vote in large numbers. The 15th Amendment presented this privilege now as official and in written form.
Nevertheless, this amendment was disregarded right from the beginning…

Full Text:
file: Slavery_History.pdf []
Category: History
download: 1219

Power Point Presentation:
file: PoliticalPart_History.ppt []
Category: History
download: 635


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